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Comparative Analysis of Surface Refractivity Variations in the Sahel and Coastal Zones of Nigeria

Variation in Surface Refractivity N is largely influenced by changes in some meteorological parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity, and pressure. These parameters are more accurate when measured locally due to their temporal and spatial variations. The research studies and verifies the contributions of the dry and wet term components of surface radio refractivity. The research focuses on the comparison of surface refractivity variations in two geoclimatic zones of Nigeria. The study reveals that the Sahel and Coastal zones have dissimilar distinct weather conditions and consequently diverse variational pattern of their surface refractivities diurnally and seasonally. The diurnal values of surface refractivity vary moderately on typical sunny days with average values of about 345-391 N-units and 275-314 N-units in the Coastal and Sahel respectively. Wider daily variations were observed during the rainy season in both geoclimatic zones due to frequent rainfalls, especially in the Coastal Stations. The average daily refractivity in the Coastal and Sahel during the rainy seasons are 339-390 and 311-384 N-units respectively. Analysis of the results obtained indicates that the annual mean of the ITU-R recommendation underestimates surface refractivity by 11-15% across the coastal stations and by 5-10% across the Sahel zone. The derived values for each station would be useful for radio engineers in the design and optimization of terrestrial radio links.

Surface Refractivity, Geoclimatic Zones, Sahel Zone, Coastal Zone

Yusuf Babatunde Lawal, Joseph Babatunde Dada. (2023). Comparative Analysis of Surface Refractivity Variations in the Sahel and Coastal Zones of Nigeria. American Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 7(1), 10-18.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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